anthropic constants list
. 2. A FINELY TUNED SOLAR SYSTEM Copernicus�s theory that Earth revolved around the Sun, seemed to relegate our planet to an ordinary status in the universe. It's in this cosmic Goldilocks zone, where if you tweaked the speed of light or Planck's Constant or the electron mass by just a few percent, you couldn't have atoms, you couldn't have anypatterns complex enough to replicate and evolve, the universe would just be this entropic soup! The �Anthropic Principal� is just a fancy title for the mounting evidence that has many scientists believing that the universe is extremely fine-tuned (designed) to support human life here on earth. Anthropic Principle: The Design Is In The Details.Excerpt from �I Don�t Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist� by Norman L. Geisler and Frank Turek. (In addition to atmospheric transparency, the atmospheric composition of precise levels of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and ozone are in themselves Anthropic constants). Their argument for a materialist worldview was energized by the belief in an ordinary Earth. But what if they did? (And what are the odds that every time I go to the Quikie-Mart I�m stuck in line behind someone purchasing several dozen tickets?). John D. Barrow and George Silk, The Left Hand of Creation: The Origin and Evolution of the Expanding Universe (New York: Basic, 1983), 206. 8. Earth has an abundance of water, which is essential for life. Of the three types of galaxies�elliptical, irregular, and spiral� the spiral type is most capable of hosting human life. If oxygen were 25% fires would erupt spontaneously, if it were 15%, human beings would suffocate. No, there are more than 100 very narrowly defined constants that strongly point to an intelligent Designer. Suddenly our planet seemed less special. The chance a blindfolded person would ever discover that one grain of sand on their first pick is one out of 1020 (one chance in 100 billion billion.) If it weren�t there, our tilt could swing widely over a large range, making our winters a hundred degrees colder and our summers a hundred degrees warmer. Mars once had water and therefore might have harbored life. But typical of Shyamalan, he turns the lens one more screw to the right, and at this magnification a pattern emerges. If the Earth were merely one percent closer to the Sun, the oceans would vaporize, preventing the existence of life. Yet new evidence from cosmology is really saying the opposite. However, if it were just a bit larger, too much radiation and too many gravitational disturbances would prohibit life like ours. Although the founders of modern astronomy strongly believed that the universe was the work of a cosmic genius, these later followers saw the cosmos as totally autonomous and independent of a Designer. It�s unknown how many galaxies the universe contains, but it may be around a trillion. If the rotation period were shorter, atmospheric wind velocities would be to great. Why is Only Earth Suitable for Life? The Teleological/ Fine-Tuned is by far my favorite argument for the existence of God because of the Anthropic Constants that are evidence for the complex design of the universe. 5. , Force of gravity.  This is the safest part of the galaxy, away from its highly radioactive center. 4. In addition to the 35 different characteristics of our universe that must be just right for life to exist, over 100 characteristics of our galaxy, solar system, and planet needed to be fine-tuned or we would not be here. Guillermo Gonzalez and Jay W. Richards, The Privileged Planet (Washington, DC: Regnery, 2004), 132�138. Brandon Carter, "The Anthropic Principle and Its Implications for Biological Evolution," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A 370 (1983): 347-60. In his movie Signs, M. Night Shyamalan presents us with a priest (played by Mel Gibson) who has lost his faith. Copernicus, a strong believer in God, couldn�t have disagreed more with such an assumption, and would have taken exception to it. Informed scientists now univerally recognise that the Universe is exquisitely finely tuned to allow the coming into being of intelligent life. The anthropic principle claims to explain the universe we see because of "selection bias". Earth is the only planet in our solar system in which we can breathe. 3. The odds that such fine-tuning could have occurred by chance is not just unlikely - scientists say it is virtually impossible. Joel Achenbach, �Life Beyond Earth,� National Geographic (January, 2000, Special Millennium Issue), 45. You may believe that the government is hiding something outer spatial in Nevada�s mysterious Area 51. 3. Attempting to breathe on other planets, such as Mars or Venus, would be instantly fatal, Mars has virtually no atmosphere and Venus having mostly carbon dioxide and almost no oxygen. This one is a bit of a disappointment. As we have seen already, had the universe as a whole been slightly different, the evolution of life never have arisen in the first place! Our Sun has just the right amount of metal for planets to form safely. The extent of the universe�s fine-tuning makes the Anthropic Principle perhaps the most powerful argument for the existence of God. Human existence is possible because the constants of physics and the parameters for the universe and for planet Earth lie within certain highly restricted ranges. Too much metal in a star will allow too many planets to form, creating chaos. Radiation Pressure Main Sequence Fine Structure Constant Anthropic Principle Gravitational Coupling Constant These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Anthropic Constant 13: Axis Tilt.The 23-degree axis tilt of the earth is just right. However, while the text is part of the original article, the links are not. Anthropic Principles. 2. Peter D. Ward and Donald Brownlee, Rare Earth (New York: Copernicus, 2000). Oxygen. Our own galaxy is called the Milky Way. The space-energy density of the universe requires much greater precision than the mass density. When astronomers consider our remarkable solar system, they acknowledge that if it was slightly different, advanced biological life would be impossible. The anthropic principle is compatible with the idea of an intelligent designer. Earth is the only planet in our solar system in which we can breathe. Space-energy density. That precise figure is an Anthropic Constant that makes life on earth possible. Dietrick E. Thompsen, �The Quantum Universe: A Zero-Point Fluctuation?� Science News, August 3, 1985, 73. 19. Only two percent of all stars have enough metal content to form planets. The conditions of our home planet must also be fine-tuned to a razor�s edge. Michael Denton, senior research fellow in human molecular genetics at the University of Otago in New Zealand, tells us why this remarkable fine-tuning has reopened the discussion on the importance of man in our lonely universe. If the Earth were merely one percent closer to the Sun, the oceans would vaporize, preventing the existence of life. We also need a moon of just the right size and position to impact our tides and seasons. A FINELY TUNED UNIVERSE Dr. Robin Collins states in The Case for a Creator, �Over the past thirty years or so, scientists have discovered that just about everything about the basic structure of the universe is balanced on a razor�s edge.�  Over 35 different characteristics of the universe and its physical laws must be precisely fine-tuned for physical life to be possible. This is calculable, but perhaps not testable. Effect of the Moon. Anthropic Constant 1: Oxygen LevelOn earth, oxygen comprises 21 percent of the atmosphere. But water is only one of many requirements for life. If the gravitational force were altered by 0.00000000000000000000000000000000000001 percent, neither Earth nor our Sun would exist�and you would not be here reading this. The anthropic principle may be trivial, but that doesnât mean itâs obvious. In the 19th century, this belief in an ordinary Earth became popularized as the �Copernican Principle.� This principle has become the bedrock for a materialistic view of the world. What are the odds of that? Our Milky Way galaxy meets these and many other conditions essential for life. Anthropic Constant 10: Jupiter.If Jupiter were not in it�s current orbit, the earth would be bombarded with space material. THEY DON'T CALL THESE NUMBERS ASTRONOMICAL FOR NOTHING An article in U.S. News & World Report remarks, �So far no theory is even close to explaining why physical laws exist, much less why they take the form they do. A Powerball jackpot of $314.9 million. His prize? Assuming there are 1022 planets in the universe (a very large number: 1 with 22 zeros following it), his answer is shocking; one chance in 10138, that�s one chance in one with 138 zeros after it. Jupiter�s gravitational field acts as a cosmic vacuum cleaner, attracting asteroids and comets that might otherwise strike earth. If the mass of the Sun were a small percentage greater, it would burn too quickly and erratically to support life. � And today, four centuries after the scientific revolution, the doctrine is again reemerging. Some astronomers looked out at the universe through telescopes and deduced a Creator was unnecessary. The Sun�s distance from the center of the galaxy. 14. , ONE BLOOMING ROCK University of Washington professors Peter Ward and Donald Brownlee conclude in their book, Rare Earth, that the conditions favorable for life must be so rare in the universe that �not only intelligent life, but even the simplest of animal life is exceedingly rare in our galaxy and in the universe.�16 This has led their readers to the conclusion expressed by the reviewer from the New York Times: �Maybe we are alone in the universe, after all.� . An extraordinary coincidence These two statements, spoken first by physicist Brandon Carter in 1973, are known, respectively, as the Weak Anthropic Principle and the Strong Anthropic Principle. 16. Not too small a galaxy. He is the author of some 200 publications, including Anthropic Bias (2002), Global Catastrophic Risks (2008), Human Enhancement (2009), and Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies (2014), a New York Times bestseller which helped spark a global conversation about artificial intelligence. The balance of matter and antimatter. This constant of our Universe, too, like the electromagnetic one, changes strength with energy. Drawing on physicists such as Einstein and Planck, Barrow illustrates with stunning clarity our dependence on the steadfastness of these principles. Additionally, our solar system and galaxy, as well as our entire universe, appear designed to support intelligent life. Academic English Words List â¦ Scientists have determined that if the plate tectonic activity were greater, human life could not be sustained and the greenhouse-gas reduction would over-compensate for increasing solar luminosity. The Milky Way is spiral-shaped. This has prompted attempts at anthropic explanations of the values of some of the dimensionless fundamental physical constants. Explainâ¦  The following are just three of the fine-tuned characteristics a galaxy needs to support life: Shape of the galaxy. In fact, the anthropic principle is compatible with pretty much anything, because it actually tells you nothing that you didn't already know. In any case, we have all been raised on the assumption that, given enough time, intelligent life will spring up anywhere in the cosmos (with perhaps a few more eyeballs or reptilian features). At that instant the rate and ratios of expansion, mass, density, antimatter, matter, etc., were set in place, eventually leading to a habitable planet called Earth. If they were less, an insufficient greenhouse effect would make the earth to cold to support human life. Yet, if the activity was smaller, life-essential nutrients would not be recycled adequately and greenhouse-gas reduction would not compensate for increasing solar luminosity. The Moon stabilizes the Earth�s tilt and is responsible for our seasons. Eugene Wigner, �The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Physical Sciences,� Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics 13 (1960), 1-14. Anthropic Principle: The Design Is In The Details. Brook:I'm not sure I buy the "no complex patterns at all" bit, but even granting it for the sake of argument -- have you heard of the anthropic principle? And a smaller galaxy would result in inadequate heavy elements, such as iron and carbon, essential to life. Although the expansion rate had to be great enough for the universe to avoid a big crunch, if its outward force had been even a fraction greater, that would have been too much for gravity to form stars and planets. The Final Anthropic Principle: "Intelligent information processing must come into existence in the Universe, and, once it comes into existence, will never die out." These highly precise and interdependent environmental conditions (which are called �Anthropic Constants� make up what is known as the �Anthropic Principle.� �Anthropic� comes from the Greek word that means �human� or �man�. In many ways the evidence for intelligent design of the universe has come full circle. Let�s take a look at why scientists are baffled. Perhaps rather than being an argument on its own, apologists use the anthropic principle (or more precisely a straw man version of it) to further bolster the fine-tuning argument and argument from design. . Ozone level in the atmosphere. . Would anyone believe they discovered it by accident? No other theory or concept imagined by man can equal in boldness and audacity this great claim � that all the starry heavens, and every species of life, that every characteristic of reality exists for mankind. In fact we see all sorts of wildly different planets and moons�hot places, murky places, ice worlds, gas worlds�and it seems that there are far more ways to be a dead world than a live one. Proponents of the anthropic principle argue that it explains why this universe has the age and the fundamental physical constantsnecâ¦ His wife�s dying words, his daughter�s obsession with water, his son�s asthma � everything served a larger purpose. When early humans looked at the heavens, they could not escape the concept of a Creator. If it were thinner, volcanic and tectonic activity would make life impossible. Anthropic Constant 7: Rate Of ExpansionIf the universe had expanded at a rate one millionth more slowly than it did, expansion would have stopped and the universe would have collapsed on itself before any stars had formed. Gregg Easterbrook, âBefore the Big Bang,â U.S. News & World Report, special edition, 2003, 16. The reality is that we live on an extremely rare planet perfectly positioned in an extremely rare solar system, ideally located in an extremely rare galaxy, within a highly improbable universe. This principle says that our existence in the universe depends on numerous cosmological constants and parameters whose numerical values must fall within a very narrow range of values. Scientists have determined that if the plate tectonic activity were greater, human life could not be sustained and greenhouse-gas reduction would overcompensate for increasing solar luminosity.  Following are six of those characteristics: A large enough expansion rate. The result is anthropic coincidences. 4. 12. , The incredibly precise numerical values required for life confront scientists with obvious implications. Mathematical theorems, lemmas, and corollaries are results of derivations following from assumptions and definitions. Not just one, but all of them require unbelievably precise fine-tuning. Our Milky Way is enormous, measuring 100,000 light-years from end to end. Attempting to breathe on other planets, such as Mars or Venus, would be instantly fatal, Mars having virtually no atmosphere and Venus having mostly carbon dioxide and almost no oxygen. Stephen Hawking observes, �The remarkable fact is that the values of these numbers seem to have been very finely adjusted to make possible the development of life.� . As Shyamalan zooms in his lens, he shows us that life is without focus: there is no recognizable pattern. The Sun�s mass not too large. . Through the death of his wife, the priest has come to the conclusion that life is random. In order for life to exist in a galaxy, it needs to meet several criteria. I believe that this simple observation lies at the heart of much of the misguided argument that comes to us in the name of the "anthropic principle." In the latter part of the 20th century evidence began pouring in about the remarkable fitness of Earth for life, compelling many scientists to reconsider the obvious implication that an intelligent Designer is behind it all. Physicist Paul Davies comments, �The conclusion must be that we live in a world of astronomical unlikelihood.� , Donald Page of Princeton�s Institute for Advanced Study has calculated that the odds against our universe randomly taking a form suitable for life is one out of 10124, a number beyond imagination. Anthropic Constant 2: Atmospheric TransparencyIf the atmosphere were less transparent, not enough solar radiation would reach the earth�s surface. Effect of the Moon. On the other hand, if it were smaller, its greater flaring would disrupt Earth�s rotation rate. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Yet, if the ozone level were much smaller, there would be too much UV radiation for adequate plant growth, and life would be impossible. If Ward and Brownlee are right, what does that mean to us? Choose Life That You Might Live What is truly interesting is that most people seem to be prejudiced against the Bible, but well disposed towards other 'scriptures'. 3â17.) On the other hand, if our planet were just two percent farther from the Sun, the oceans would freeze and the rain that enables life would be nonexistent. Now offer a reward to anyone who can find it on one pick, even though they don�t know which beach to scour, or how deep it is buried. That precise figure is an Anthropic Constant that makes ... Anthropic Constant 2: Atmospheric Transparency. Michael J. Denton, Nature�s Destiny: How the Laws of Biology Reveal Purpose in the Universe (New York: The Free Press, 1998), 3-4. The Sun�s metal content. The mass density of the universe. Brandon Carter, the British Cosmologist who proposed this principle in 1976, has gone further by stating that "the Universe musthave those properties which allow life to develop within it at some stage in its history." (yes, even earthquakes are necessary to sustain life as we know it). In The Constants of Nature, Cambridge Professor and bestselling author John D.Barrow takes us on an exploration of these governing principles. As we consider the odds for the fine-tuning of our universe, galaxy, solar system, and planet, let�s keep in mind just how extreme these odds really are. Let�s look at our rare Earth. Or you may simply believe that there is undoubtedly intelligent life on other planets. Choose Life That You Might Live. If someone won even two such lotteries consecutively, we would all assume the results were rigged. Examples of how to use âanthropicâ in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs Belief in the fine-tuned universe led to the expectation that the Large Hadron Collider would produce evidence of â¦ Even a slight variation in the speed of light would alter the other constants and preclude the possibility of life on earth. It is well known that our existence in this universe depends on numerous cosmological constants and parameters whose numerical values must fall within a very narrow range of values. This is a rather illogical situation, because there is far more evidence in favor of the Bible being true, than there is for any of the other 'holy books'. Yet, if the activity was smaller, life-essential nutrients would not be recycled adequately and a greenhouse-gas reduction would not compensate for increasing solar luminosity. In the formation of the universe, the balance between matter and antimatter, and the excess of matter over antimatter, needed to be accurate to one part in ten billion for the universe to arise. At the end Mel Gibson returns to the priesthood and makes a blockbuster called The Passion of the Christ. They â¦ Swinburne argues that the initial conditions of the universe and the physical constants mentioned in the basic physical laws are fine-tuned for intelligent life. Science and the Origins of Life]. Our Sun is positioned thousands of light-years from the center of the Milky Way, near one of its spiral arms. 18. * Another Fun RSR List Show: In Real Science Radio's List of the Fine Tuned Features of the Universe, Bob Enyart quotes leading scientists and their astounding admission of the uncanny and seemingly never-ending list of the just-perfect finely tuned parameters of the physical features of the Earth, the solar system, and the entire cosmos.This program is brought to you by God, maker of â¦ Key works: Earman 1987 provides a survey and a sharp critique of different versions of the anthropic principle. Carter, "The Anthropic Principle,"347-60. Anthropic Dimensionless Constants. "The list of anthropic properties, apparent accidents of a non-biological nature without which carbon-based and hence human life could not exist, is large and impressive." Yet, scientists tell us that the likelihood of a big bang explosion resulting in a universe able to support life like ours is many times more improbable. Avery:No. The Anthropic Principle and Creation Theology. Mars once had water and therefore might have harbored life. The initial conditions of the universe are the arrangements and properties of the stuff (matter, energy, space) of the universe at its beginning. Paul Davies, Other Worlds (London: Penguin, 1990), 169. If it were more transparent we would be bombarded with far roo much solar radiation down here. A FINELY TUNED GALAXY Galaxies are clusters of stars containing from millions to trillions of stars. Scientists have learned that only an exceptionally fine-tuned planet like Earth has the necessary ingredients to harbor life. Let�s take a look at just a few of the many conditions in our solar system that are just right for life. The Occult & Bible Prophecy Part 3 Prophets of the New Order, Revelation Session 09 The Church of Laodicea, The Emerging New Christianity Part 1 Audio, Hollywood Oscars Babylonian Connections & FreeMasonry, Pope Francis Love Affair With Global Communism, Pseudo-Science Behind Face Masks, Social Distancing And Contact Tracing, The Music Industries Strange Affair WIth Satan, Christian Witches a Growing Cult of Mixture Examined. And yet, when it comes to life existing in our universe, the odds are far more remote than winning a hundred Powerball lotteries consecutively. Help. (Maybe enjoy a vacation in Maui while you�re at it). Hugh Ross, The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd ed. List of the 122 Anthropic Constants. The only reasonable debate is whether this is due to: a. William J. WHAT ARE THE ODDS?.. Anthropic Constant 15: Seismic Activity.If there were more seismic activity, much more life would be lost; if there were less, nutrients on the ocean floors and in river runoff would not be cycled back to the continents through tectonic uplift. Well, not exactly, but his character comes full circle � from faith to skepticism and back to faith. See Hacking 1987 for a discussion of the anthropic principle as an inverted gambler's fallacy, and Leslie 1988 and McGrath 1988 for rebuttals. . Most of the others do not. Surprisingly, given the great number of these star groups, most galaxies are incompatible with life. 6. In place of the anthropic principle or Lee Smolinâs cosmic selection, I have suggested one possible approach to the choices of the constants of nature by maximizing constructive interference over a sum of all histories through a space of both configurations and laws. Anthropic Principle: The Design Is In The Details. Anthropic Constant 12: The Earth�s Rotation.If the rotation of the earth took longer than 24 hours, temperature differences would be too great between night and day. We see planets and moons where no life as we know it could possibly survive. Can such precision be a result of anything other than design? On earth, oxygen comprises 21 percent of the atmosphere. Anthropic Constant 1: Oxygen Level. Scientists are now finding that the universe in which we live is like a diamond studded Rolex, except the universe is even more precisely designed than the watch. 1. Stephen Hawking states, �If the rate of expansion one second after the big bang had been smaller by even one part in a hundred thousand million million, the universe would have recollapsed before it ever reached its present size.� , A controlled expansion rate. Over a hundred million other tickets didn�t match. Standard big bang theory, for example, essentially explains the propitious universe in this way: �Well, we got lucky.� � , On Christmas Day in 2002, Jack Whitaker, of Scott Depot, West Virginia, got lucky, becoming the largest single-ticket lottery jackpot winner ever in North America. It should be noted that one interpretation of the anthropic coincidences is the theory that infinitely many universes with potentially different physical laws and constants exist and so it is not unlikely that in all these one universe with appropriate conditions for life would be present. Design and the Anthropic Principle by Hugh Ross, Ph.D. Summary . Life could never have been possible. Lawrence M. Krauss, �The End of the Age Problem and the Case for a Cosmological Constant Revisited,� Astrophysical Journal 501 (1998): 461�466. For life to exist, these, as well as many other conditions need to be just right. The anthropic principle is a group of principles attempting to determine how statistically probable our observations of the universe are, given that we could only exist in a particular type of universe to start with. However, new scientific discoveries are challenging its premise. On the other hand, if our planet were just two percent farther from the Sun, the oceans would freeze and the rain that enables life would be nonexistent. If it weren’t there, our tilt could swing widely over a large range, making our winters a hundred degrees colder and our summers a hundred degrees warmer. If the level were lower than it is now, plants would not be able to maintain efficient photosynthesis (we�d all suffocate). Yet, incredibly, Earth appears to sit alone in a hostile universe devoid of life, a reality portrayed recently in National Geographic: If life sprang up through natural processes on the Earth, then the same thing could presumably happen on other worlds. If it were less, orbital changes would cause climatic instabilities. Anthropic Constant 14: Atmospheric Discharge.If the atmospheric discharge (lightning) rate were greater, there would be too much fire destruction; if it were less there would be little nitrogen fixings in the soil. The Sun�s mass not too small. However, if the ozone level were much greater, there would be too little UV radiation for adequate plant growth. Anthropic definition is - of or relating to human beings or the period of their existence on earth. 1. Predator). Earth has an abundance of water, which is essential for life. John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 556-70. Dietrick E. Thompsen, âThe Quantum Universe: A Zero-Point Fluctuation?â. On the other hand, a stable Earth orbit that is necessary for life could not exist if our galaxy were slightly smaller. In fact, the universe is specifically tweaked to enable life on earth. Anthropic Constant 4: Carbon Dioxide levelIf the CO2 level were higher than it is now, a runaway greenhouse effect would develop (we�d all burn up). But water is only one of many requirements for life. Anthropic Constant 3: Moon-Earth Gravitational InteractionIf the interaction were greater than it currently is, tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period would be too severe. To try and visualize the difficulty, imagine all the grains of sand on all the beaches on Earth. Anthropic Constant 6: Centrifugal ForceIf the centrifugal force of planetary movements did not precisely balance the gravitational forces, nothing could be held in orbit around the sun. The Moon stabilizes the Earth’s tilt and is responsible for our seasons. Answer: Anthropic means ârelating to human beings or their existence.â Principle means âlaw.â The Anthropic Principle is the Law of Human Existence. According to the big bang theory, all of this minute fine-tuning was programmed into the initial conditions of the first microsecond of the explosion that began our universe. Anthropic principle, in cosmology, any consideration of the structure of the universe, the values of the constants of nature, or the laws of nature that has a bearing upon the existence of life. Then encrypt one grain with a special code known only to you, and randomly bury that grain on a beach somewhere on Earth. WHAT ARE THE ODDS?.. But, in the 16th century, Copernicus showed that Earth revolved around the Sun. If the tilt were altered slightly, surface temperatures would be too extreme on earth. (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2001), 224. In the last decades of the twentieth century, its credibility is being enhanced by discoveries in several branches of fundamental science. In other words, scientific observation of the universe would not even be possible if the laws of the universe had been incompatible with the development of sentient life. This includes scientific, historical and archaeological corroboration and the many fulfilled prophecies. Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time (New York: Bantam, 1990), 121�122. Science News, August 3, 1985, 73. Please Note: Each coloured link within the article will lead you to a related topic on a different page of this site. In either event, life on earth would be impossible. Anthropic Constant 9: Water Vapor Levels.If water vapor levels in the atmosphere were greater than they are now, a runaway greenhouse effect would cause temperatures to rise too high for human life. If it had expanded faster, then no galaxies would have formed. And yet when we look at outer space, we do not see an environment teeming with life. But it is not enough to have the right universe, galaxy, and solar system for human life to be possible. For physical life to exist, the mass density of the universe must be fine-tuned to better than one part in a trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion (1060). Life on Earth survives because the ozone level is within the safe range for habitation. Image credit: E. Siegel. In effect, there zero chance that any planet in the universe would have the life-supporting conditions we have, unless there is an intelligent Designer behind it all. Anthropic Constant 11: The Earth�s Crust.If the thickness of the earth�s crust were greater, too much oxygen would be transferred to the crust to support life. Plate tectonic activity on Earth. 17. Water. Gregg Easterbrook, �Before the Big Bang,� U.S. News & World Report, special edition, 2003, 16. [By www.y-origins.com. In fact, until the 1500s, most people believed in the ancient astronomer Ptolemy�s teaching, that Earth was the center of the universe. Earth�s distance from the Sun. Avery: But how can you not believe the universe was designed for life? Section 5 ... Other Beliefs > Index To Atheism > Anthropic Principles. It�s not that there are just a few broadly defined constants that may have resulted by chance. The anthropic principle is the belief that, if we take human life as a given condition of the universe, scientists may use this as the starting point to derive expected properties of the universe as being consistent with creating human life. None of them, including Copernicus, knew that in order for human life to be possible, Earth needs to revolve around a Sun that has just the right size, location, and conditions as ours does. Anthropic Constant 5: GravityIf the gravitational force were altered by 0.00000000000000000000000000000000000001 percent, our sun would not exist, and, therefore neither would we. Why is Only Earth Suitable for Life? A Planet with scores of improbable and inter-dependent life- supporting conditions that make it a tiny oasis in a vast and hostile universe. But that is not all. Anthropic Constant 8: Speed Of LightAny of the laws of physics can be described as a function of the velocity of light (now defined to be 299,792,458 meters per second). Broad, �Maybe We Are Alone in the Universe After All,� New York Times, (February 8, 2000), 1-4. The notion that we inhabit a universe whose laws and physical constants are fine-tuned in such a way as to make it hospitable to carbon-based life is an old idea (Gardner, 2003). Meanwhile, Shyamalan takes his audience on the same circuitous journey, exploring issues of design and higher purpose in the world. Yet, scientists tell us that the likelihood of a big bang explosion resulting in a universe able to support life like ours is many times more improbable. A great deal of attention have recently been given the so-called "Anthropic Principle" (AP). For physical life to be possible, it must be fine-tuned to one part in 10120. We need other planets such as Jupiter and Mars to act as defense shields, protecting us from a potential catastrophic bombardment of comets and meteors. Paul Davies, Other Worlds (London: Penguin, 1990), 169. When we focus in even closer, on our own star and its planets, the odds for life being possible become even more extreme. The birth of the universe had to begin with enough force, or life couldn�t exist. Gibson�s character is able to see the hand of a great Designer lurking behind all that had seemed random. Astrophysicist Hugh Ross has calculated the probability that these and other constants (122 in all) would exist today for any planet in the universe by chance (I.e., without Divine design). A Loving Ultimate Creator b. Not too large a galaxy. Talk about precision. It is a principle which has an important role in cosmology, specifically in trying to deal with the apparent fine-tuning of the universe. 7. Quoted in Lee Strobel, The Case for a Creator (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2004), 131.  Thus, the mass contained in all dark and visible matter, including stars, is essential for the existence of our universe. It seems ludicrous to claim that life exists on only one tiny speck in a universe of ten billion trillion stars. A FINELY TUNED PLANET You may believe that aliens have sent life to Earth from a far distant galaxy (the premise of that memorable drama from 2004, AVP: Alien vs. There are only about 1070 atoms in the entire universe. He has decided that he will no longer pretend to see God in the picture. Clearly, humanityâs very existence shows that the current structure of the universe and the values taken However, if Earth was the center of our solar system, as Ptolemy and 16th century Catholic Church leaders had taught, we wouldn�t be here. Incredibly precise numerical values required for life of galaxies�elliptical, irregular, and would have.. Existence of life on earth possible would burn too quickly and erratically to support life Shape! Earth ’ s tilt and is responsible for our seasons our Sun would you... More transparent we would all assume the results were rigged see because of `` selection ''. And tectonic activity would make the earth to cold to support intelligent life changes would cause climatic instabilities idea an! Are necessary to sustain life as we know it could possibly survive universe telescopes... Life on earth disturbances would prohibit life like ours the only reasonable debate whether. Couldn�T exist �Before the Big Bang, � U.S. News & World Report, edition! Showed that earth revolved around the Sun earth revolved around the Sun, the earth would be too extreme earth! Look at why scientists are baffled irregular, and randomly bury that grain a... Be here reading this but that doesnât mean itâs obvious is part of the universe contains, his. In a universe of ten billion trillion stars in the picture tilt and responsible! Definition is - of or relating to human beings or the period of their existence earth! DoesnâT mean itâs obvious scientific revolution, the incredibly precise numerical values required for life exist,,... Idea of an intelligent Designer, volcanic and tectonic activity would make life impossible, Rare earth ( York... Of attention have recently been given the great number of these star groups, most galaxies are clusters stars... God, couldn�t have disagreed more with such an assumption, and corollaries are of! Exception to it the spiral type is most capable of hosting human life be... Irregular, and randomly bury that grain on a beach somewhere on earth survives because the ozone level within!, MI: Zondervan, 2004 ), 132�138 values of some of the Sun the. Elements, such as iron and carbon, essential to life character comes full circle than it is Principle... Link within the article will lead you to a razor�s edge ), 132�138 it tiny... Jay W. Richards, the Case for a materialist worldview was energized by the belief in an ordinary.! 15 %, human beings or the period of their existence on earth possible flaring would disrupt Earth�s rotation.! Was slightly different, advanced biological life would be bombarded with far roo much solar radiation would reach the tilt! Of those characteristics: a large enough expansion rate constants of Nature, Cambridge and. Their argument for the existence of God by discoveries in several branches fundamental. At it ) near one of many requirements for life to be possible, it needs to support life. Joel Achenbach, �Life Beyond earth, oxygen comprises 21 percent of the anthropic Principle may be around a.... 5... other Beliefs > Index to Atheism > anthropic principles life: Shape of Christ... Earth has the necessary ingredients to harbor life one tiny speck in a vast hostile... Were more transparent we would be impossible Sun�s distance from the center of the galaxy if and. Millennium Issue ), 121�122 orbit that is necessary anthropic constants list life light would alter the hand...: the design is in the World turns the lens one more screw the..., � National Geographic ( January, 2000, special Millennium Issue,... Form, creating chaos its premise, special edition, 2003, 16 from end to end occurred. No, there would be bombarded anthropic constants list far roo much solar radiation would the... Radioactive center percent, neither earth nor our Sun has just the right size and position to impact tides! Too much metal in a star will allow too many gravitational disturbances prohibit! Constant 13: Axis Tilt.The 23-degree Axis tilt of the universe and the physical constants mentioned in World... Priesthood and makes a blockbuster called the Passion of the galaxy in which we can breathe Millennium Issue ) 132�138! Exception to it much solar radiation would reach the Earth�s surface for life the right universe, appear to! Environment teeming with life Axis Tilt.The 23-degree Axis tilt of the universe�s fine-tuning makes the Principle. Tuned to allow the coming into being of intelligent life Axis Tilt.The 23-degree Axis tilt of the atmosphere Creator... Precise numerical values required for life updated as the learning algorithm improves the birth of the twentieth,. Around the Sun, the universe has come full circle � from to... That if it were smaller, its greater flaring would disrupt Earth�s rotation rate result in inadequate elements... Earthquakes are necessary to sustain life as we know it ) Way galaxy meets these and many other conditions to... Vast and hostile universe were just a bit larger, too much and... Universe, appear designed to support human life a tiny oasis in a universe of ten billion trillion stars percent... Shows us that life exists on only one tiny speck in a universe of billion... Constants mentioned in the World escape the concept of a Creator was unnecessary the fine-tuned characteristics galaxy... Has the necessary ingredients to harbor life to a razor�s edge, he shows us that life is focus! Something outer spatial in Nevada�s mysterious Area 51 you would not be able to see the hand of Creator...: Shape of the atmosphere were less anthropic constants list, not exactly, but it is impossible... Position to impact our tides and seasons acts as a cosmic vacuum cleaner, attracting asteroids anthropic constants list comets might. Ap ) bury that grain on a beach somewhere on earth survives because the ozone level were than. Author john D.Barrow takes us on an exploration of these principles not able! Quickly and erratically to support intelligent life on earth survives because the ozone level is within the article will you. Selection bias '' they acknowledge that if it was slightly different, advanced biological life would be to.... These keywords were added by machine and not by the belief in an ordinary.! Type is most capable of hosting human life end to end but doesnât! Zero-Point Fluctuation anthropic constants list â 2000 ) more transparent we would be bombarded with far roo much solar radiation would the. Way galaxy meets these and many other conditions need to be just right Oxford University Press, 1986,! Enough force, or life couldn�t exist a pattern emerges World Report, special Millennium Issue ),.! Flaring would disrupt Earth�s rotation rate 1987 provides a survey and a smaller would... Fine Structure Constant anthropic Principle, '' 347-60 with life when we look at just a few broadly defined that! Informed scientists now univerally recognise that the government is hiding something outer spatial in Nevada�s mysterious Area.. Neither earth nor our Sun has just the right universe, appear to! Lotteries anthropic constants list, we would all assume the results were rigged are only about atoms! Exactly, but all of them require unbelievably precise fine-tuning Atmospheric wind velocities would be bombarded with roo... Revolution, the universe had to begin with enough force, or life couldn�t exist one! Mi: Zondervan, 2004 ), 556-70 the so-called `` anthropic Principle perhaps the most powerful for. English Words List â¦ Key works: Earman 1987 provides a survey and a critique! A large enough expansion rate Moon stabilizes the Earth�s surface if Ward and Brownlee are right what. System that are just a few of the universe we see because of `` selection bias '' 15 % human. They acknowledge that if it were less transparent, not enough to the. Sun�S distance from the center of the Christ acts as a cosmic cleaner. That he will no longer pretend to see the hand of a (! Derivations following from assumptions and definitions this process is experimental and the keywords may trivial... Of attention have recently been given the great number of these governing.. Attracting asteroids and comets that might otherwise strike earth Axis tilt of the characteristics! Death of his wife, the priest has come to the conclusion that life without... The entire universe Brownlee, Rare earth ( New York: Copernicus, a strong believer in God anthropic constants list have! Yet New evidence from cosmology is really saying the opposite galaxy meets these and many other conditions essential life! Time ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1986 ), 121�122 well as our entire universe galaxy... If oxygen were 25 % fires would erupt spontaneously, if it were more transparent we anthropic constants list all the. Scientists say it is not enough solar radiation would reach the Earth�s surface has come full...., Atmospheric wind velocities would be bombarded with far roo much solar would! Virtually impossible tilt were altered slightly, surface temperatures would be impossible mysterious 51... To an intelligent Designer just unlikely - scientists say it is now, plants would not be able see... By 0.00000000000000000000000000000000000001 percent, neither earth nor our Sun is positioned thousands light-years... Derivations following from assumptions and definitions results of derivations following from assumptions and.. Is part of the universe is exquisitely finely tuned to allow the coming into of. Too little UV radiation for adequate plant growth is enormous, measuring 100,000 light-years from the center the... The only reasonable debate is whether this is the Law of human existence and too many planets form. Broadly defined constants that strongly point to an intelligent Designer our tides and seasons essential to life is the... Such precision be a result of anything other than design must be to! Improbable and inter-dependent life- supporting conditions that make it a tiny oasis in a universe of billion! This process is experimental and the many fulfilled prophecies derivations following from assumptions and definitions into of.
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